Oracle … as usual

Oracle by Laurent Leturgez

Category Archives: licensing

Oracle 12.2, new release … new editions or just a cloudy feature ?

Recently I have created an Oracle 12.2 database in the Oracle Cloud (Extreme Performance). I was able to test some of the new features.

And usually, when I test a new release of Oracle, I have a look into the ins_rdbms.mk file to see if there are some new options to link the Oracle kernel, and in this release I found some interesting stuff.

As I said before, my instance was in the Extreme Performance, it was normal that, when connected, I got this banner:

Connected to:
Oracle Database 12c EE Extreme Perf Release 12.2.0.1.0 - 64bit Production

And when I had a look to the V$INSTANCE view, there’s a column EDITION. This column is already here in 12.1 and is documented.

If you have a closer look to the documentation (12.1), you can see different editions:

  • CORE EE: CORE Enterprise Edition
  • CORE SE: CORE Standard Edition
  • EE: Enterprise Edition
  • PO: Personal Edition
  • SE: Standard Edition
  • XE: Express Edition

Ok for EE, PO, SE and XE … they are well known edition, but what about those “Core” Editions (Standard and Enterprise).

Note: on 1st December, 12.2 documentation mention only Core EE, EE, PO and XE (Might be a doc bug) 

I had a look to both (12.1 and 12.2) ins_rdbms.mk files (located in $ORACLE_HOME/lib folder). For On premises installations (11.2 & 12.1), no trace of these new editions, but they are available on Oracle Cloud Platform

  • Oracle 12.1.0.2
$ grep -i edi /u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0/dbhome_1/rdbms/lib/ins_rdbms.mk
edition_corestandard:
        $(SILENT)$(ECHO) "Deploying Oracle Database Core Standard Edition"
edition_coreenterprise:
        $(SILENT)$(ECHO) "Deploying Oracle Database Core Enterprise Edition"
edition_standard:
        $(SILENT)$(ECHO) "Deploying Oracle Database Standard Edition"
edition_enterprise:
        $(SILENT)$(ECHO) "Deploying Oracle Database Enterprise Edition"
edition_highperf:
        $(SILENT)$(ECHO) "Deploying Oracle Database Enterprise Edition High Performance"
edition_extremeperf:
        $(SILENT)$(ECHO) "Deploying Oracle Database Enterprise Edition Extreme Performance"

  • Oracle 12.2.0.1
$ grep -i edi /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/dbhome_1/rdbms/lib/ins_rdbms.mk
edition_corestandard:
        $(SILENT)$(ECHO) "Deploying Oracle Database Core Standard Edition"
edition_coreenterprise:
        $(SILENT)$(ECHO) "Deploying Oracle Database Core Enterprise Edition"
edition_standard:
        $(SILENT)$(ECHO) "Deploying Oracle Database Standard Edition"
edition_enterprise:
        $(SILENT)$(ECHO) "Deploying Oracle Database Enterprise Edition"
edition_highperf:
        $(SILENT)$(ECHO) "Deploying Oracle Database Enterprise Edition High Performance"
edition_extremeperf:
        $(SILENT)$(ECHO) "Deploying Oracle Database Enterprise Edition Extreme Performance"

ohoohhh ;), let’s try to activate those rules and relink the kernel

$ make -f ins_rdbms.mk edition_coreenterprise ioracle
Deploying Oracle Database Core Enterprise Edition
mv -f /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/dbhome_1/lib/libvsn12.a /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/dbhome_1/lib/libvsn12_backup.a.dbl
cp /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/dbhome_1/lib/libvsn12_cee.a.dbl /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/dbhome_1/lib/libvsn12.a
chmod 755 /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/dbhome_1/bin

 - Linking Oracle
rm -f /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/dbhome_1/rdbms/lib/oracle
/u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/dbhome_1/bin/orald  -o /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/dbhome_1/rdbms/lib/oracle -m64 -z noexecstack -Wl,--disable-new-dtags -L/u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/dbhome_1/rdbms/lib/ -L/u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/dbhome_1/lib/ -L/u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/dbhome_1/lib/stubs/   
-Wl,-E /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/dbhome_1/rdbms/lib/opimai.o /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/dbhome_1/rdbms/lib/ssoraed.o /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/dbhome_1/rdbms/lib/ttcsoi.o -Wl,--whole-archive -lperfsrv12 -Wl,--no-whole-archive /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/dbhome_1/lib/nautab.o 
/u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/dbhome_1/lib/naeet.o /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/dbhome_1/lib/naect.o /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/dbhome_1/lib/naedhs.o /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/dbhome_1/rdbms/lib/config.o  
-ldmext -lserver12 -lodm12 -lofs -lcell12 -lnnet12 -lskgxp12 -lsnls12 -lnls12  -lcore12 -lsnls12 -lnls12 -lcore12 -lsnls12 -lnls12 -lxml12 -lcore12 -lunls12 -lsnls12 -lnls12 -lcore12 -lnls12 -lclient12  -lvsn12 -lcommon12 
-lgeneric12 -lknlopt `if /usr/bin/ar tv /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/dbhome_1/rdbms/lib/libknlopt.a | grep xsyeolap.o > /dev/null 2>&1 ; then echo "-loraolap12" ; fi` -lskjcx12 -lslax12 -lpls12  -lrt -lplp12 
-ldmext -lserver12 -lclient12  -lvsn12 -lcommon12 -lgeneric12 `if [ -f /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/dbhome_1/lib/libavserver12.a ] ; then echo "-lavserver12" ; else echo "-lavstub12"; fi`
 `if [ -f /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/dbhome_1/lib/libavclient12.a ] ; then echo "-lavclient12" ; fi` -lknlopt -lslax12 -lpls12  -lrt -lplp12 -ljavavm12 -lserver12  -lwwg  `cat /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/dbhome_1/lib/ldflags` 
   -lncrypt12 -lnsgr12 -lnzjs12 -ln12 -lnl12 -lngsmshd12 -lnro12 `cat /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/dbhome_1/lib/ldflags`    -lncrypt12 -lnsgr12 -lnzjs12 -ln12 -lnl12 -lngsmshd12 -lnnzst12 -lzt12 -lztkg12 -lmm -lsnls12 -lnls12  -lcore12
 -lsnls12 -lnls12 -lcore12 -lsnls12 -lnls12 -lxml12 -lcore12 -lunls12 -lsnls12 -lnls12 -lcore12 -lnls12 -lztkg12 `cat /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/dbhome_1/lib/ldflags`    -lncrypt12 -lnsgr12 -lnzjs12 -ln12 -lnl12 -lngsmshd12 -lnro12
 `cat /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/dbhome_1/lib/ldflags`    -lncrypt12 -lnsgr12 -lnzjs12 -ln12 -lnl12 -lngsmshd12 -lnnzst12 -lzt12 -lztkg12   -lsnls12 -lnls12  -lcore12 -lsnls12 -lnls12 -lcore12 -lsnls12 -lnls12 -lxml12 -lcore12 -lunls12
 -lsnls12 -lnls12 -lcore12 -lnls12 `if /usr/bin/ar tv /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/dbhome_1/rdbms/lib/libknlopt.a | grep "kxmnsd.o" > /dev/null 2>&1 ; then echo " " ; else echo "-lordsdo12 -lserver12"; fi` 
-L/u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/dbhome_1/ctx/lib/ -lctxc12 -lctx12 -lzx12 -lgx12 -lctx12 -lzx12 -lgx12 -lordimt12 -lclsra12 -ldbcfg12 -lhasgen12 -lskgxn2 -lnnzst12 -lzt12 -lxml12 -lgeneric12 -locr12 -locrb12 -locrutl12 -lhasgen12
 -lskgxn2 -lnnzst12 -lzt12 -lxml12 -lgeneric12  -lgeneric12 -lorazip -loraz -llzopro5 -lorabz2 -lipp_z -lipp_bz2 -lippdcemerged -lippsemerged -lippdcmerged  -lippsmerged -lippcore  -lippcpemerged -lippcpmerged  -lsnls12 -lnls12  -lcore12 
-lsnls12 -lnls12 -lcore12 -lsnls12 -lnls12 -lxml12 -lcore12 -lunls12 -lsnls12 -lnls12 -lcore12 -lnls12 -lsnls12 -lunls12  -lsnls12 -lnls12  -lcore12 -lsnls12 -lnls12 -lcore12 -lsnls12 -lnls12 -lxml12 -lcore12 -lunls12 -lsnls12 -lnls12 
-lcore12 -lnls12 -lasmclnt12 -lcommon12 -lcore12  -laio -lons  -lfthread12   `cat /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/dbhome_1/lib/sysliblist` -Wl,-rpath,/u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/dbhome_1/lib -lm   
 `cat /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/dbhome_1/lib/sysliblist` -ldl -lm   -L/u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/dbhome_1/lib `test -x /usr/bin/hugeedit -a -r /usr/lib64/libhugetlbfs.so && 
test -r /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/dbhome_1/rdbms/lib/shugetlbfs.o && echo -Wl,-zcommon-page-size=2097152 -Wl,-zmax-page-size=2097152 -lhugetlbfs`
test ! -f /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/dbhome_1/bin/oracle || (\
           mv -f /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/dbhome_1/bin/oracle /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/dbhome_1/bin/oracleO &&\
           chmod 600 /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/dbhome_1/bin/oracleO )
mv /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/dbhome_1/rdbms/lib/oracle /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/dbhome_1/bin/oracle
chmod 6751 /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/dbhome_1/bin/oracle

That seems to work, now let’s start the instance and let’s connect:

$ sqlplus / as sysdba

SQL*Plus: Release 12.2.0.1.0 Production on Mon Nov 28 16:41:28 2016

Copyright (c) 1982, 2016, Oracle.  All rights reserved.


Connected to:
Oracle Database 12c Enterprise Edition - Core 12.2.0.1.0 - 64bit Production

New banner … but are there any new features ?

If we compare EE Core edition and EE Extreme perf, it seems there are some difference in the field of enabled options:

  • EE Core Edition (12.2)
SQL> select parameter,value from v$option where value!='TRUE' order by 1;

PARAMETER                      VALUE
------------------------------ ------------------------------
ASM Proxy Instance             FALSE *
Active Data Guard              FALSE
Adaptive Execution Plans       FALSE
Advanced Analytics             FALSE
Automatic Storage Management   FALSE *
Cache Fusion Lock Accelerator  FALSE
Change Data Capture            FALSE
DICOM                          FALSE
Data Mining                    FALSE
Exadata Discovery              FALSE
Global Data Services           FALSE
I/O Server                     FALSE * 
Management Database            FALSE *
OLAP                           FALSE
Oracle Data Guard              FALSE
Oracle Database Vault          FALSE *
Oracle Label Security          FALSE *
Partitioning                   FALSE
Real Application Clusters      FALSE *
Real Application Security      FALSE
Real Application Testing       FALSE
Spatial                        FALSE
Unified Auditing               FALSE *
  • EE Extreme Perf Edition and High Perf Edition (12.2)
SQL> select parameter,value from v$option where value!='TRUE' order by 1;

PARAMETER                      VALUE
------------------------------ ------------------------------
ASM Proxy Instance             FALSE
Automatic Storage Management   FALSE
I/O Server                     FALSE
Management Database            FALSE
Oracle Database Vault          FALSE
Oracle Label Security          FALSE
Real Application Clusters      FALSE
Unified Auditing               FALSE

And if we have a look to “traditional” EE that we can choose from the Cloud Interface … (12.2)

SQL> select parameter,value from v$option where value!='TRUE' order by 1;

PARAMETER                      VALUE
------------------------------ ----------------------------------------
ASM Proxy Instance             FALSE
Automatic Storage Management   FALSE
I/O Server                     FALSE
Management Database            FALSE
Oracle Database Vault          FALSE
Oracle Label Security          FALSE
Real Application Clusters      FALSE
Unified Auditing               FALSE

OK, so Enterprise Core Edition and Enterprise Edition look differents in terms of available options. And like Franck Pachot pointed it out, the Core EE is like a traditional EE but with all paid options disabled and other EE features disabled (DataGuard for example).

 

On the field of licensing, these Core editions seem to be unavailable. If you buy Oracle License, on-premises or in the cloud, you only have the choice between SE, EE and EE High Perf and EE Extreme perf (in the cloud for HP and XP), no Core Editions.

If we go back to ins_rdbms.mk file, it’s possible to link these editions only in Oracle Cloud Service for 12.1 and 12.2, but Oracle Enterprise Edition 12.2 is impossible to link (because of missing libraries), but if Core Edition is a core based license model, Core Edition and Actual Enterprise Edition are licensed per core not per socket, no difference on this field:

$ make -f ins_rdbms.mk edition_enterprise ioracle
Deploying Oracle Database Enterprise Edition
mv -f /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/dbhome_1/lib/libvsn12.a /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/dbhome_1/lib/libvsn12_backup.a.dbl
cp /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/dbhome_1/lib/libvsn12_ee.a.dbl /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/dbhome_1/lib/libvsn12.a
cp: cannot stat `/u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/dbhome_1/lib/libvsn12_ee.a.dbl': No such file or directory
make: *** [edition_enterprise] Error 1

Oracle Standard Edition and Standard Core Edition are both able to be linked.

As a conclusion, the “Core” Edition could be :

  • A new licensing model for Cloud and On Premises platform and will be released later. As a consequence, a new licensing model will appear for Standard Edition, not per Socket, but per Core like EE (the Socket model would be abandoned ?)
  • A new licensing model for Cloud platform … only
  • A bug ?

The future will tell us 😉

 

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Oracle extra cost options licensing on multitenant databases

Oracle database 12c has been announced few weeks ago with its main feature: multitenant database. This feature is build to consolidate many databases (aka. pluggable databases or PDB) into a unique container database (CDB).
Multitenancy is an extra cost option for the Enterprise Edition if you use more than one pdb in your container. But if you want to consolidate, you probably want to consolidate all the options you bought before for many servers.
In Oracle server, each usage of a specific feature you made is recorded in a dictionary table and can be accessed through the view: DBA_FEATURE_USAGE_STATISTICS.
In a Standard Edition database, features of the Enterprise Edition are tracked. If you want to use an extra cost option, you will probably raise an ORA-00439 (Feature not enabled):
SQL> SELECT * FROM PRODUCT_COMPONENT_VERSION;

PRODUCT              VERSION              STATUS
-------------------- -------------------- --------------------
NLSRTL               12.1.0.1.0           Production
Oracle Database 12c  12.1.0.1.0           64bit Production
PL/SQL               12.1.0.1.0           Production
TNS for Linux:       12.1.0.1.0           Production
We are working on a Standard Edition.
SQL> select NAME,DETECTED_USAGES,CURRENTLY_USED,LAST_USAGE_DATE
  2  from dba_feature_usage_statistics
  3  where name in ('Segment Shrink')
  4  /
NAME                                               DETECTED_USAGES CURRE LAST_USAGE_DATE
-------------------------------------------------- --------------- ----- -------------------
Segment Shrink                                                   0 FALSE

SQL> alter table t shrink space;
Table altered.
SQL> exec dbms_feature_usage_internal.sample_one_feature('Segment Shrink');

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

SQL> select NAME,DETECTED_USAGES,CURRENTLY_USED,LAST_USAGE_DATE
   2  from dba_feature_usage_statistics
   3  where name in ('Segment Shrink')
   4  /

NAME                                               DETECTED_USAGES CURRE LAST_USAGE_DATE
 -------------------------------------------------- --------------- ----- -------------------
 Segment Shrink                                                   1 TRUE  2013-10-09 20:46:22
SQL> BEGIN
  2   DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE.CREATE_CAPTURE(
  3    name          => 'public_privs_capture',
  4    description   => 'Captures privilege use by PUBLIC',
  5    type          => DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE.G_ROLE,
  6    roles         => role_name_list('public')
  7  );
  8  end;
  9  /
BEGIN
*
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-00439: feature not enabled: Privilege Analysis
ORA-06512: at "SYS.DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE", line 3
ORA-06512: at line 2
Notice that I used dbms_feature_usage_internal.sample_one_feature to force the update of feature usage data (They are normally updated every 7 days).
In an Enterprise Edition database, the behaviour is similar but only extra cost options usages are recorded, features included in the Edition are not (for example, Segment Shrink will stay at 0).
Now let’s see how it’s recorded in a multitenant database. In my case, I have a container database (ORACLE_SID=cdb) which hosts 10 pluggable databases. Those PDBs have been consolidated from many databases hosted on dedicated servers. As we bought database vault option for the database consolidated into PDB10 (for example), we would like to use Privilege analysis function (included in database vault option).
Let’s check how it works in the PDB10:
idle> connect sys/oracle@oel63:1521/pdb10 as sysdba
Connected.

[SYS@PDB10 | SID:CDB]> BEGIN
  2    DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE.CREATE_CAPTURE(
  3     name          => 'public_privs_capture',
  4     description   => 'Captures privilege use by PUBLIC',
  5     type          => DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE.G_ROLE,
  6     roles         => role_name_list('public')
  7     );
  8  END;
  9  /

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

[SYS@PDB10 | SID:CDB]> EXEC DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE.ENABLE_CAPTURE ('public_privs_capture');

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

[SYS@PDB10 | SID:CDB]> exec dbms_feature_usage_internal.sample_one_feature('Privilege Capture');
BEGIN dbms_feature_usage_internal.sample_one_feature('Privilege Capture'); END;

*
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-20009: Unknown Feature
ORA-06512: at "SYS.DBMS_FEATURE_USAGE_INTERNAL", line 614
ORA-06512: at line 1
Well it seems that we cannot call this package in a PDB. So we will do it the CDB$ROOT and check DBA_FEATURE_USAGE_STATISTICS (in the PDB) and CDB_FEATURE_USAGE_STATISTICS (in the CDB$ROOT).
[SYS@CDB$ROOT | SID:CDB]> select con_id,NAME,DETECTED_USAGES,CURRENTLY_USED,LAST_USAGE_DATE
  2  from cdb_feature_usage_statistics
  3  where name in ('Privilege Capture')
  4  order by 1;

    CON_ID NAME                                               DETECTED_USAGES CURRE LAST_USAGE_DATE
---------- -------------------------------------------------- --------------- ----- -------------------
         1 Privilege Capture                                                1 FALSE 2013-10-09 21:59:40
         2 Privilege Capture                                                0 FALSE
         3 Privilege Capture                                                0 FALSE
         4 Privilege Capture                                                0 FALSE
         5 Privilege Capture                                                0 FALSE
         6 Privilege Capture                                                0 FALSE
         7 Privilege Capture                                                0 FALSE
         8 Privilege Capture                                                0 FALSE
         9 Privilege Capture                                                0 FALSE
        10 Privilege Capture                                                0 FALSE
        11 Privilege Capture                                                0 FALSE
        12 Privilege Capture                                                0 FALSE

12 rows selected.

[SYS@CDB$ROOT | SID:CDB]> connect sys/oracle@oel63:1521/pdb10 as sysdba
Connected.
[SYS@PDB10 | SID:CDB]> select NAME,DETECTED_USAGES,CURRENTLY_USED,LAST_USAGE_DATE
  2  from dba_feature_usage_statistics
  3  where name in ('Privilege Capture')
  4  /

NAME                                               DETECTED_USAGES CURRE LAST_USAG
-------------------------------------------------- --------------- ----- ---------
Privilege Capture                                                0 FALSE
We have the proof that feature usage is recorded in the root container and licensing is logically done at the CDB$ROOT level.
If I bought database vault option in my 11g database for 2 CPUs, and now my multitenant is located on a strong server with 24 CPUs, I have to buy 22CPUs of this option, even if it run on a single. On the other side, you can use the option and all of its features in all your PDBs even you don’t need it 😉
To proove it, I will reproduce the same steps in another PDB (the PDB4 for example), and we will see that usage is recorded in the CDB.
idle> connect sys/oracle@oel63:1521/pdb4 as sysdba
Connected.
[SYS@PDB4 | SID:CDB]> BEGIN
  2    DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE.CREATE_CAPTURE(
  3     name          => 'public_privs_capture',
  4     description   => 'Captures privilege use by PUBLIC',
  5     type          => DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE.G_ROLE,
  6     roles         => role_name_list('public')
  7     );
  8  END;
  9  /

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

[SYS@PDB4 | SID:CDB]> EXEC DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE.ENABLE_CAPTURE ('public_privs_capture');

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

[SYS@PDB4 | SID:CDB]> connect sys/oracle as sysdba
Connected.
[SYS@CDB$ROOT | SID:CDB]> exec dbms_feature_usage_internal.sample_one_feature('Privilege Capture');

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

[SYS@CDB$ROOT | SID:CDB]> alter session set nls_date_format='YYYY-MM-DD HH24:MI:SS';

Session altered.

[SYS@CDB$ROOT | SID:CDB]> set lines 500
[SYS@CDB$ROOT | SID:CDB]> set pages 500
[SYS@CDB$ROOT | SID:CDB]> select con_id,NAME,DETECTED_USAGES,CURRENTLY_USED,LAST_USAGE_DATE
  2  from cdb_feature_usage_statistics
  3  where name in ('Privilege Capture')
  4  order by 1;

    CON_ID NAME                                               DETECTED_USAGES CURRE LAST_USAGE_DATE
---------- -------------------------------------------------- --------------- ----- -------------------
         1 Privilege Capture                                                2 TRUE  2013-10-09 22:11:37
         2 Privilege Capture                                                0 FALSE
         3 Privilege Capture                                                0 FALSE
         4 Privilege Capture                                                0 FALSE
         5 Privilege Capture                                                0 FALSE
         6 Privilege Capture                                                0 FALSE
         7 Privilege Capture                                                0 FALSE
         8 Privilege Capture                                                0 FALSE
         9 Privilege Capture                                                0 FALSE
        10 Privilege Capture                                                0 FALSE
        11 Privilege Capture                                                0 FALSE
        12 Privilege Capture                                                0 FALSE

12 rows selected.
If you plan to implement multitenant database, you have to be clever and think about options you bought and how you will implement them into your consolidated databases.